«Феминита» выступила с альтернативным докладом на сессии КЛДЖ

Казахстанская феминистская инициатива «Феминита» («Феминита») выступила с альтернативным докладом на 74-сессии Комитета по ликвидации дискриминации в отношении женщин (КЛДЖ или Комитет), подготовленный совместно с трансгендерной инициативой «Alma-TQ».

В докладе были представлены рекомендации и информация по Списку вопросов Комитета, в том числе о стереотипах и пагубных практиках, гендерном насилии в отношении ЛБКТ женщин, участии женщин в политической и общественной жизни и здоровье ЛБКТ-женщин (лесбиянки, бисексуалки, квир- и трансгендерные женщины). 

В рамках брифингов Комитета с неправительственными организациями и серии вопросов-ответов “Феминита” также ответила на вопросы КЛДЖ в отношении: (1) необходимости принятия антидискриминационного законодательства, включающего сексуальную ориентацию и гендерную идентичность (СОГИ) в качестве защищаемого признака, (2) отмены требования Семейного Кодекса о «хирургическом изменении пола» и принудительной стерилизации для юридического признания гендера; (3) практических препятствий в осуществлении права на свободу собраний и объединений ЛБКТ инициатив и отказов в их регистрации. Ответы также охватили вопросы Комитета, касающиеся: (4) участия женщин в политике и на уровнях принятия решения, (5) Списка запрещенных профессий для женщин и (6) реализации Конвенции в национальном законодательстве и ее использования в национальных судах.

По итогам сессии 11 ноября 2019 года Комитет опубликовал следующие Заключительные замечания по СОГИ по пятому периодическому обзору Казахстана.

Legal framework and definition of discrimination 

12. The Committee recommends that the State party:
(a) Adopt comprehensive anti-discrimination legislation and measures to prohibit direct and indirect, as well as intersecting forms of discrimination, in the public and private spheres, and to include all internationally recognized prohibited grounds of discrimination against women;

Access to justice and legal complaints mechanisms

14. The Committee recommends that the State party:
(b) Ensure that article 145 of the Criminal Code (violation of the right to equality) encompasses intersecting forms of discrimination, such as discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity, and ensure that all women, including disadvantaged groups of women (CEDAW/C/KAZ/CO/R.5, para. 48), are aware of this provision and other remedies available in case of violation of their rights and that they have effective access to legal aid and can seek redress and compensation;

Civil society organisations

17. [The Committee] it is concerned about the overall limited cooperation of the State party with civil society and cases of registration being denied to feminist organisations promoting women’s human rights and the rights of lesbian, bisexual, transgender women and intersex persons, for non-compliance with “spiritual and moral values, culture, prestige and role of the family.” In this context, it also notes that the Vision for the Development of Civil Society until 2025 is pending approval.

18. The Committee recommends that the State party take advantage of the adoption of the Vision for the Development of Civil Society until 2025 to:
(a) Enhance cooperation with civil society organisations, particularly those working on women’s rights, to ensure that they play a strong role in the area of women’s advancement and are meaningfully involved in policy and law-making processes;
(b) Review the Law “On charities” to remove disproportionate restrictions on the registration of civil society organisations and ensure that such organisations, including feminist organisations promoting women’s human rights and the rightsof lesbian, bisexual, transgender women and intersex persons, are able to exercise their rights to freedom of expression, assembly and association without undue interference.

Gender-based violence against women

25. [The Committee] notes with concern:
(h) The subjection of women with disabilities to forced sterilisation and forced abortion, particularly those living in institutions, police violence against women in prostitution, mandatory gender reassignment surgery for transgender women for the purpose of legal gender recognition, and the limited access to justice for victims of those forms of gender-based violence. 

26. Recalling its general recommendation no. 35 (2017) on gender-based violence against women, updating general recommendation No. 19, the Committee recommends that the State party:
(i) Ensure that forced sterilisation and abortion are criminalized and perpetrators prosecuted; abolish the mandatory gender reassignment surgery, in law and in practice; identify and eliminate the barriers preventing victims from accessing justice in rural and urban areas and ensure that all victims have access to effective reparation, including compensation;

Disadvantaged groups of women

47. The Committee is concerned about reports that women with disabilities, lesbian, bisexual and transgender women and intersex persons, refugee, asylum seeking, stateless women and women with undetermined citizenship continue to experience multiple and intersecting forms of discrimination.

48. The Committee recommends that the State party:
(b) (i) Review the legislation, including Article 257(13) of the Family Code, to remove sex reassignment surgery from the list of requirements for gender recognition; (ii) ensure that its healthcare policies and HIV programme take into account the needs of transgender women; (iii) criminalise offences based on sexual orientation and/or gender identity as a stand-alone crime and consider “sexual orientation and gender identity” as aggravating circumstances if they are used as a motive for committing a crime; (iv) revise Articles 121, 122 and 123 of the Criminal Code to remove the reference to “lesbianism;” (v) investigate reports of threats and blackmailing against lesbian, bisexual and transgender women and intersex persons, prosecute the perpetrators and bring them to justice, as appropriate; (vi) ensure that lesbian, bisexual and transgender women and intersex persons women are not prosecuted merely on the ground of their real or assumed sexual orientation or gender identity.

Комитет также сделал ряд рекомендаций в отношении участия женщин в политике и общественной жизни, трудоустройства и реализации Конвенции в национальном законодательстве и судопроизводстве.

Applicability of the Convention

10. The Committee recommends that the State party ensure the applicability of the Convention in the light of the constitutional amendment and that it can be invoked in all types of court proceedings in relation to women’s rights. It recommends that the State party incorporate the Convention into its national legislation, build the capacity of the judiciary and legal professionals, and raise public awareness, particularly among women, on how to apply or invoke the Convention, respectively. It also urges the State party to harmonise its legislation on the applicability of international treaties.

Participation in political and public life

30. [The Committee] recommends that the State party:
(a) Review the Concept of Family and Gender Policy with a view to setting 50 per cent quotas for women’s representation in all areas of life;
(b) Introduce incentives for political parties to promote women in senior positions and governing bodies within their party structures and increasing the visibility of women candidates during election campaigns;
(e) Take effective measures to address regional disparities in women’s political representation, including by encouraging their active political participation; (f) Raise awareness among political leaders and the general public that the full, equal, free and democratic participation of women on an equal basis with men in political and public life is a requirement for the full implementation of the human rights of women.

Employment

38. [The Committee] recommends that the State party:
(c) Eliminate occupational segregation, both horizontal and vertical, and close the gender pay gap, including by regularly reviewing wages; conduct a study to measure the impact of the new system for remuneration on women;
(d) Repeal the list of prohibited occupations for women and facilitate women’s access to such occupations; ensure that any restrictions are applied individually and not applied across the board to all women.

В рамках фоллоу ап процедуры Комитет призвал Казахстан предоставить в течение установленного срока информацию о выполнении им рекомендаций, изложенных в пунктах: 26 (i) об отмене обязательной процедуры по «хирургическому изменении пола» на законодательном уровне и на практике и 38 (d) об отмене Списка запрещенных специальностей для женщин и обеспечении доступа к трудоустройству женщин по этим специальностям.

Напомним, что в марте этого года “Феминита” успешно представила теневые доклады на пре-сессии Комитета.

Выражаем благодарность за поддержку IWRAW Asia Pacific, COC Netherlands и ILGA World в лице Ксении Кириченко.

Айгерим Камидола

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